The guideline for balanced nutrition is the latest formulation that replaces and enhances the concept of 4 healthy 5 perfect. Balanced nutrition is defined as a daily diet containing nutrients in the type and amount according to the needs of the body, considering the principles of food diversity, physical activity, clean living habits and monitoring body weight regularly in order to maintain a normal body weight to prevent nutrition problems (Ministry of health,2014).
There are 4 pillars in the principle of balanced nutrition which aims to balance the amount of energy consumed and expended by the body by monitoring normal body weight. The four pillars are divided in a balanced nutritional pyramid as shown as below.
The following is a description of the four pillars (Ministry of health, 2014)
- Eating a variety of foods: Diverse food means foods consisting of various food groups (staple food, side dish, vegetable, and fruit) or a variety within each of these food groups, for example staple foods consisting of rice, noodle, potatoes, etc. why do you need to eat a variety of foods? Its because we cannot get all the nutrients the body needs by consuming only one food group. In addition to paying attention to diversity, the principle of balanced nutrition also emphasizes the appropriate portion for each food group. As illustrated in a balanced nutrition pyramid, the recommended staple food portion is 3-4 servings/day, vegetables 3-4 servings/day, fruits 2-3 servings/day, and side dishes 2-4/day.
- Adapting clean living habits: Clean living behaviour is useful to prevent the body from becoming infected with diseases from its sources. Infectious diseases have a reciprocal relationship with a person’s nutritional status. When the body is exposed to an infectious disease, appetite will decrease so that the nutrient intake is reduced even though the body needs lots of nutrients to fight these infectious diseases. As a result, the body will experience malnutrition. In addition, the condition of malnutrition will also cause the body to be susceptible to infectious diseases due to decrease in immunity.
- Doing physical activity: when doing physical activity, the body will release energy. Therefore, physical activity aims to balance the nutrients that enter and leave the body so that a normal body weight is obtained.
- Monitor body weight (BW) regularly to maintain a normal body weight: achieving normal body weight is the result of a series of efforts to balance the nutrients consumed and excreted by the body. In adult normal weight is obtained by calculating the body mass index (BMI).
Hopefully, this article can increase your knowledge and inspire motivation to apply the guidelines for balanced nutrition in everyday life. let’s start applying balanced nutrition guidelines!
Contributor: Choirun Nisa, 6th semester student of Bachelor of Nutrition Program, Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia
Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 41 Tahun 2014 Tentang Pedoman Gizi Seimbang.